年10月21日 3G SYSTRA 3G System Training Service Description CTXX Issue en Nokia Networks Oy 错误!使用“开始” 应用于要在此处显示的文字. 3G SYSTRA. Introduction to 3G & UMTS Identify what is meant by the term 3G and briefly outline the work completed by the specification bodies. Furthermore. Directory: 3G/4G develop. Plat: PDF Size: KB Downloads: 4. Upload time: Uploader: joyraj. Description: This book on 3G system.

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A3 is used in authentication, A8 is used in systfa a ciphering key and A5 is used in ciphering. Telecom ’95 was held in Geneva where Nokia demonstrated The mobile network needs to be monitored continuously, and there are several reasons for this.

00_Table of Contents 3G SYSTRA(Jan) – [PDF Document]

It is also possible to use more than one traffic channel in the air interface to achieve even higher data rates. The same principle is applied when the mobile subscriber has forwarded incoming calls to another number.

In a mobile terminated call a traffic channel from the NSS in the terminating side to the called mobile station is reserved when: He might be in his room, in the sauna, in the swimming pool, in the restaurant, in fact, practically anywhere. It means that the potential cell coverage in GSM is larger than for and networks. It is used for system signalling during idle periods and also for call set-up before a traffic channel has been allocated in the example above located in one of the timeslots There are four different types of handover and the best way to analyse them is to follow the subscriber as he moves: At the moment, the bearer services are divided into 10 categories, each of which describes the characteristics of the bearer.


Location areas inside a hotel Note that these location areas are only known within the area of the hotel, that is, no information is given to the embassy police department.

Secondly, the gain value is lower than for omnidirectional BTSs.

They are all bi-directional and point to point channels. Systar are three dedicated control channels: These events can be the defined call cases or other possible chargeable events, such as location updates. However, the amount of signalling between the MSC and the VLR is quite heavy and their tasks are so related with each other that it makes good sense to integrate them together.

The NMS is the operation and maintenance related part of the network and it is needed for the control of sysfra whole GSM network. This is in contrast to the analogue mobile systems where one radio frequency is used by a single user for the duration of the conversation.

3G-Systra This book on 3G system .practical book. –

This technique is called modulation. One has traffic peaks during weekdays and especially during working hours, and the other during the evenings and weekends. Shadowing effect Shadowing is generally a problem in the uplink direction, because a Base Transceiver Station transmits information at a much higher power compared to that from the mobile station.


The mathematical algorithm used for this purpose is called “Viterbi equalisation”.

00_Table of Contents 3G SYSTRA(Jan-06)

The lady makes the connection to the called party and the phone starts to ring. There is no duplication of ETs since their reliability is much greater than that of the actual link, therefore, in the event of failure, redundancy is taken care of by reorganising the signalling and traffic.

The omnidirectional BTS has an antenna that transmits and receives degrees. The ability of one signalling channel to handle calls in other physically different cables. It is sent to the Billing Centre that creates bills for the subscriber. In the example above, the calling party has to dial systga different number depending on whether he wants to talk or send a fax.

Roaming agreements between several operators were established. These invocations and results that are sent back and forth between multiple elements using MAP need some sort of secretary to manage the transactions. The case of setting up a call across multiple networks is not the same as signalling across the same network.

International roaming is possible in GSM, but not sysra analogue networks. The same information is also stored in the mobile subscriber’s SIM. This causes bottlenecks and wastes bandwidth.